Modern difficulties in advancement of science and engineering in nigeria

Summary

This paper examined different initiatives that have been made to build science and engineering considering that its introduction into the college procedure when the early Christian missionary arrived in Nigeria. The paper more talked over distinct difficulties to the advancement of science and engineering in Nigeria. Recommendations were made for its advancement in Nigeria.

 

INTRODUCTION

Improvement of science and engineering in Nigeria has not been encouraging considering that the introduction of sciences into college curriculum from the time of the early Christian missionary to Nigeria. Science training in most Nigerian colleges was just Nature Examine prior to 1930 (Abdullahi, 1982). Nigerian has not obtained considerably in science and engineering and this is why we are however classified as building nation. The so termed designed nations acquired their prosperity by way of scientific advancement (Abdullahi, 1982). Nation that is underdeveloped in science will not similarly build technologically since science and engineering are with each other science offer with collection of info by way of scientific procedures and engineering works by using the info to come across options to practical problems.

Numerous initiatives has been made by different governing administration in Nigeria to build science ever prior to impartial a single of these is altered of the notion of Typical science as a matter to be available up to the School Certification to these topics as biology, chemistry and physics. Afterwards advancement place enrolment in secondary college at ratio 60:forty between Science and Arts topics. Just one main work aimed at the advancement of science was the coming with each other of all science instructors in 1957 to inaugurate the Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria (STAN). The association is anxious with the training of science by way of inquiry and discovery strategy in which college students arrive to realize and build science concepts by investigating and experimenting on their possess (Abdullahi, 1982).

Complex faculties, Faculty of Arts, Science and Technologies, Schools of instruction Complex, Polytechnics and Universities of Technologies were all established in the nation in a quest to build science and engineering. The procedure of instruction was altered from the a single inherited from our colonial master to six-three-three-4 procedure of instruction. According to Rufai (2007) the six-three-three-4 coverage is basic for the so considerably wished-for technological breakthrough and the governing administration has made her stand obvious by stating her motivation to scientific and technological advancement of the place.  Equipment were brought from foreign international locations to ensure that this procedure worked and instructors were despatched to overseas for more scientific tests to enable them suit in to the information procedure of instruction.

 With all these initiatives made at building science and engineering and thinking of its value to obtaining self reliance of a nation as reported by Adebayo (2001) that there is require for nations to build scientifically and technologically since of the job it plays in obtaining self reliance. There are however a lot of difficulties to the advancement of science and engineering in Nigeria that make her significantly driving other nations of the planet.

Modern Issues

Sources

For science and engineering to be designed to fulfill the planet typical as it is in the designed nations these days there ought to be ample methods to train science at all level of instruction. Ajileye (2006) opined that insufficient methods for training and finding out of science represent a main trigger of students’ achievements. This insufficient source features laboratories, science equipment, and specimens employed as training aids. Improvement of science and engineering can’t be separated from the excellent of scholar a nation is generating from her colleges.

Waziri (2002) noticed that thousands and thousands of naira-really worth of equipment acquired for the advancement of introductory engineering is however lying uninstalled owing to lack of ideal workshops and laboratories. Nations that do not have laboratories, science equipment and specimens to train college students will absolutely create bad college students in science and engineering who are to become engineers and scientists tomorrow. An important source in the advancement of science and engineering is qualified trainer. Waziri (2002) reported the shortage of qualified instructors for vocational- technical instruction programme induced primarily by bad payment as as opposed to the additional eye-catching prospects in industry and commerce.

Complex faculties are not for a longer period taken really serious a lot of of these faculties have been closed down since they lack college students and motivation by the governing administration. These technical faculties are very important for the education of talent craftsman and artisans that are very vital to the technological advancement of any nation.

Basis of Science

Basis is very important in any project and that is why there is require for a sound foundation for sound science instruction from primary college by way of superior process of training and properly construction curriculum. Akinola (2006) was of the feeling that college students unsuccessful science since of teacher’s methodology and the structuring of the curriculum. Science training is not taken really serious in a lot of of our primary colleges this would make a course trainer who is not a skilled science trainer to be training science. It is only in secondary college we have instructors specialised in matter places but in primary science instructors are ‘multipurpose’ which is very completely wrong. What do you be expecting from a trainer who is a graduate of social scientific tests training science in primary college? At his or her finest would conclusion up in destroying the scientific skill of the pupils. The summary is that a undesirable scientific seed is planted and when it germinates we really should not be expecting something much better. According to Oyedele (2007) science instruction is the ‘seed ‘to be planted if technological advancement is to be created. He reported if Nigeria is to be among the superior societies of the planet, geared up with present day engineering of her possess making, she really should put together her citizens for foreseeable future roles of predicating them on sound and sound science instruction. Nigeria young children are very superior, intelligent and can contend with their counterpart in any section of the planet if they have superior trainer who teaches with superior methods. In the feeling of Oyedele (2007) the average Nigerian child is capable, intelligent and gifted in all spheres of lifestyle.

High quality of Schooling

The excellent of Nigerian instruction is bad owing to bad leadership and corruption. Ogunwoye (2003) reported lack of trainer determination, recognition and reward direct to bad excellent of instruction. Nigeria governing administration do not price instruction and that mirror in their finances each 12 months. They gave very compact allocation to instruction as as opposed to security forgetting that instruction is funds intense. They make insufficient fund readily available to get and taken care of laboratories and workshop equipment. Idris (2002) noticed lack of funds to procure expected spare pieces to keep the equipment for technical instruction. The troubles of our governing administration according to Adedibu (2001) in formulating sound objectives and finest options to our problems have resulted in the mismanagement of methods, completely wrong preparing and misplaced of developmental priorities this has poorly afflicted our instructional procedure in the latest a long time.

 

Societal angle

Nigerian modern society is a main challenge to our advancement of science and engineering. An average Nigerian do not have absolute self confidence in any advancement made by his or her fellow Nigerian in the industry of science and engineering since according to Adedibu (2001) they have considerably respect for merchandise from other nations at the expense of locally created merchandise and this is owning an adverse result on our technological advancement. Right until we study to settle for and respect our indigenous work in the industry of science and engineering and respect our Nigeria made merchandise we could not make considerably advancement in science and engineering. Some Nigerian experienced made importance progress in drugs in particular in combating HIV/AIDS but since they are Nigerians no person recognises their initiatives but negatively criticized.

Institutional rivalry

A further challenge to the advancement of science and engineering in Nigeria is rivalry between different establishments in particular between university and polytechnics (Katende, 2007). Where these establishments meant to work with each other as associates in progress to build science and engineering they are concentrating on which a single is top-quality in certification. According to Mfon (2007) if the polytechnic, university, governing administration and other stakeholders work with each other towards investigate ambitions, our march to technological and scientific breakthrough will be at sight.

Technological transfer

In excess of dependence on foreign aids in form of technological transfer is a different challenge. According to Adedibu (2001) technological transfer is a method of acquisition of technical education that can aid a nation technical advancement from other nations. The obtaining nation is predicted to control, keep, replicate and boost on this engineering by way of investigate with no the aid of the marketing place. However, Nigeria situation is distinct we have been tied to the apron of the marketing place. There is very little undesirable in technological transfer but the method ought to comprehensive by quit relying on the marketing nation and this direct to our technological advancement.

Instructional materials

Scarcity and insufficient use of educational substance for training and finding out of sciences in colleges is a really serious challenge in most Nigerian colleges. Kola (2007) reported the require for the use of educational aids in training physics in Nigerian colleges can’t be overemphasized. The instructors are above dependent on foreign made or much better termed ‘already made’ apparatus, vast majority do not have the skill to improvise for the advantage of their college students. According to Daniel (2001), instructors require to be uncovered to the production and finding out materials applying readily available methods in particular at this age of information engineering. The table below display educational substance works by using for training and finding out physics in two regional governing administration secondary colleges in a condition in Nigeria.

s/n

Instructional substance

Percentage of employed (%)

Percentage not employed (%)

  

1

Audio tape

10

ninety

two

Laboratories

100

three

Charts

100

4

Projectors

100

5

Printed materials

70

30

six

Libraries

100

7

Improvisations

80

20

eight

Films

100

9

World-wide-web

10

ninety

10

eleven

laptop or computer

neighborhood methods

20

80

I00

Supply: Kola (2007).

Summary

Science and engineering is very important to the advancement of a place and consequently its advancement ought to be supplying a prominent place in the governance of any nation. It is obvious from the higher than discussion that science and engineering has not been properly designed owing to difficulties that can be overcome if we are figure out to do so. Most of these difficulties are artifical difficulties that can be overcome.

Recommendations

Because of the crucial job of science and engineering in the advancement of a nation I will like to make the subsequent suggestion for its advancement in Nigeria.

It is important to start the advancement of science from the primary college by way of the use of discovery process of training. This enable pupil appreciates science and also be inventive in their strategy to science alternatively than the typical practice of memorization. Most important college instructors who are not science trainer really should not be authorized to train science as against the current process in which course instructors are made to train all topics in his or her course like science. Science instructors ought to be individual from other topics as it is completed in secondary colleges.

Science instructors ought to be inspired, enthusiastic and send out for more education in their industry of scientific tests routinely. Attendance of seminar, conferences and workshops ought to form section of science teacher’s advertising at all concentrations.

Complex faculties ought to be resuscitated in all condition of the place and governing administration really should make adequate funds readily available for the education of technical instructors equally locally and overseas. Resources really should also be offered for the obtain of technical equipments and constructing of present day technical workshop.

Professionalism ought to be strictly adhere to in training, it really should not just be any person that can go to classroom and train, it ought to be skilled instructors. This is important since of the process of training and appropriate improvisation of science educational materials.

Nigerian really should have respect, price and patronise our locally made merchandise governing administration really should depend it as a criminal offence for everyone rejecting or disdain merchandise create in Nigeria.

Authorities really should strengthen our investigate establishments to minimize place above dependence on foreign aids and assist to control, keep, and replicate technical education acquired from other nations alternatively than however relying on them just after prolonged decades of gotten it.

Last but not least our governing administration really should make instruction to be first in the nation’s finances as there is no nation that can increase higher than the level of her instruction.

REFERENCES

Abdullahi (1982). Science Educating in Nigeria. The creator. Ilorin

Adebayo, C.O (2001). Gender elements: Cultural hindrance to technological

          Improvement.  Nigerian journal of Gender and advancement two(1)1-eleven

Adedibu, J.S (2001). Technological advancement: The way forward. Nigerian

          Journal of Gender and advancement two(1) 79-85

Adedokun, J.A (2007). Harnessing the Likely of Science Schooling as a

          Stimulus to Technological Improvement in Nigeria. Global journal

          Of investigate in Schooling 4(1&two) 227-234

Akinola, B.M.A (2006). Leads to of Mass Failure in senior secondary college

 Chemistry in Ijebu East Local Government   Region of Ogun Condition. Oro Science Educational journal. 4(5&six),19-28

Ajileye , O.O (2006).In the direction of Productive Science Schooling: Difficulties in common

Primary Schooling Programme. Journal of Sports activities Administration and Educational Exploration. 1 (two), 337-346

Daniel, I.Y (2001). Improvisation and use of educational Resources in Science

          Educating. A paper introduced at NCCE/UNESCO Workshop for Coach-the

          Trainers’ workshop. Kotangora.

Idris, M.B (2003). Procedures toward enhancing Instructional Performance in

          Technologies Schooling programme. Lafiagi Journal of Science Schooling.

          5 (1&two)132-137

Katenda, J. (2007, October 4). Varsity, Poly Rivalry: We ought to do a thing.

          Vanguard, p.49.

Kola, A.J (2007). Takes advantage of of educational materials for training and finding out

          Physics in Edu and Patigi regional governing administration Spots, Nigeria. Global

          Journal of Exploration in Schooling 4(1&two)74-79

Mfon, E.E (2007). Educational Reforms and the Agenda of Complex and

      Vocational Schooling Facilities in Nigeria. Global journal of Research      Schooling  4(1&two)280-285       

       

Ogunwoye,J.A (2003). Slipping Common of Schooling: A Actuality or Fiction. Lafiagi

          Journal of Science Schooling 5(1&two)143-one hundred fifty

Oloyede, E.O (2007). Science Schooling and Technological advancement in

          Nigeria. Global journal of Exploration in Schooling 4 (1&two) ninety five-103

Rufai, U. A (2007). Technological Improvement and the Have to have for  Waziri, U. M

        Modern Educating Techniques. Global journal of Exploration in Schooling 

         4(1&two) a hundred forty five-153 .

Waziri,A (2003). Elements that Bring about wastages in Vocational and Complex

          Schooling in Nigeria. Lafiagi journal of Science Schooling. 5(1&two)139-148